Acute pelvic pain is pain that starts over a short period of time anywhere from a few minutes to a few days. This type of pain is often a warning sign that something is wrong and should be evaluated promptly.
Pelvic pain can be caused by an infection or inflammation. An infection doesn't have to affect the reproductive organs to cause pelvic pain. Pain caused by the bladder, bowel, or appendix can produce pain in the pelvic region; diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome, kidney or bladder stones, as well as muscle spasms or strains are some examples of non-reproductive causes of pelvic or lower abdominal pain. Other causes of pelvic pain can include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), vaginal infections, vaginitis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). All of these require a visit to your healthcare provider who will take a medical history, and do a physical exam which may include diagnostic testing.
Women who have ovarian cysts may experience sharp pain if a cyst leaks fluid or bleeds a little, or more severe, sharp, and continuous pain when a large cyst twists. Fortunately, most small cysts will dissolve without medical intervention after 2 or 3 menstrual cycles; however large cysts and those that don't rectify themselves after a few months may require surgery to remove the cysts.
An ectopic pregnancy is one that starts outside the uterus, usually in one of the fallopian tubes. Pain caused by an ectopic pregnancy usually starts on one side of the abdomen soon after a missed period, and may include spotting or vaginal bleeding. Ectopic pregnancies can be life-threatening if medical intervention is not sought immediately. The fallopian tubes can burst and cause bleeding in the abdomen, if left untreated. In some cases surgery is required to remove the affected fallopian tube.